I think this is a most timely topic to consider, especially with the ”Year of Faith” just around the corner. What follows is my response to the questioner. I welcome others’ comments and insights on this subject.
If we mean by “faith” an explicit belief in the person and teachings of Our Lord Jesus Christ, then clearly not everyone has received the gift of faith. That’s why the Church’s perennial mission is evangelization–to offer the gift of faith to all men and women. All of us play a role in that effort.
And while we cannot judge the state of individual souls, it would also seem that there are those who have been invited, but have rejected the invitation (cf. Lk. 14:15-24).
While I cannot pretend to know “God’s thoughts” on this, as my thoughts are not His thoughts and my ways are not His ways (cf. Is. 55:8-9), I would like to offer a couple observations that shed light on this crucial issue.
First, faith is very much a personal gift. We all are called to answer for ourselves Our Lord’s question, ‘Who do you say that I am?’ (Mt. 16:15). If someone were to offer us a $100 bill, no strings attached, we might wonder why others weren’t given a similar offer, but at the end of the day we still have to accept or reject the offer that was personally made to us.
Second, God wills that all be saved and come to the knowledge of truth (1 Tim. 2:4). The ordinary way that this occurs is through the gift of faith received at Baptism. However, God does not place limits on Himself. He is all good and willed the existence of every man and woman who has ever lived. So, the Church holds out the possibility of salvation for all those who have not knowingly and willingly rejected Him.
In that regard, perhaps the parable of the talents or gold coins is useful (cf. Mt. 25:14-30; Lk. 19:11-27). As Catholics we have been given the fullness of the faith. We have received “10 talents,” so more is expected of us. However, those who were given only 5 or 2 or even just 1 talent will be judged worthy to enter our heavenly Father’s kingdom if they fruitfully use whatever talents they were given. (And woe to us if we take our Catholic faith for granted and bury our talents in the ground.)
How God works with those who do not have faith is a mystery that’s beyond us in this life, but surely we know that a person is infinitely better off with faith and with all the graces that derive from being a faithful disciple of Christ. Indeed, we were made for life with God as Christ’s brothers and sisters, so using our “10 talents” well involves our inviting those around us to the wonderful life of grace that God has in store for us in this life and in the next.